LoRa is an abbreviation of "Long Range", which also summarizes the key advantage of the wireless technology.
Thanks to the unique chirp modulation, the wireless link can achieve sensitivity up to -137 dBm and up to 157 dB of link budget. The trade-off is the achievable data rate, which is in the range of kilobits per second. This defines the applicability of the technology - while it is not suited for video streaming, it is well fit to serve the Internet of Things (IoT) applications.
LoRa can be used over a wide range of frequencies from 137 MHz to 1020 MHz. This includes numerous license-free ISM bands like 169 MHz, 433 MHz, 868 MHz and 915 MHz. This is a key enabler for inexpensive, world-wide deployments and interoperability.
In the OSI reference stack model, LoRa would be on the Physical Layer.


LoRaWAN is the MAC protocol for high capacity, long range, low power, Internet of Things network of LoRa nodes. It is an open LPWAN standard maintained by the LoRa Alliance. It takes advantage of the LoRa features described above and optimizes battery life and quality of service for the LoRa nodes.
Thanks to the distributed antenna model and GPS enabled gateways, the network is capable of locating the position of nodes, even when they are mobile. The standard ensures the interoperability of the various LoRaWAN networks world-wide.
In the OSI reference stack model, LoRaWAN would correspond to the MAC layer.


WSC is a provider of a LoRaWAN Network Server solution with the brand W.LoRa, which is commercially offered through a set of business models.

We provide:
  • Software for the supported LoRa gateways
  • Cloud-based LoRaWAN Network Server
  • Programming interface (APIs) for Internet of Things applications to access the end node data
  • Output of end node data to number of 3rd party services
As a gateway owner, you can use our software on your gateways to connect them to our cloud. From then on, all data received by the gateways will be relayed to you through our APIs or 3rd party services.
The network server components fullfils to role of protocol processor. It is the TLS connection end-point for the gateways and the customer applications. It is responsible for processing the incoming end node data according to the LoRaWAN protocol.
The specific roles of W.LoRa Network Server are:
  • Gateway population management
  • Application population management
  • Device population management
  • Collection of billing records
  • Security management
  • Data distribution


Security and privacy is at utmost importance in any IoT solution. The W.LoRa strictly follows LoRaWAN protocol specifies encryption to assure your data is secure, concretely
  • Per-device AES128 keys
  • Instant regeneration / revocation of device keys
  • Per-packet payload encryption for data privacy
  • Protection against replay attacks
  • Protection against man-in-the-middle attacks
  • Two sets of cryptographic domains are present in LoRaWAN - the network domain and the application domain.
The network domain is responsible for authentication of the end node data. The authorship is verified through an AES128 secret key shared between the device and the network server. The application domain is responsible for guaranteeing the privacy of the device data. There is a AES128 secret key shared between the user application and the end node.